Anna Freud (1895 -1982)

Anna Freud , the founder of child psychoanalysis, began her career under father's wing. She grew up in the household of Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychology. Under his wing she grew a deep attachment and a love for him and the field of psychoanalysis.
Many would say that she was "her father's daughter," however she was more independent than many would give her credit for. Most of her life was dedicated to her father and his work, where he left off she picked up and made it her own. Many would go so far as to say that she had no originality of her own. This is untrue. After her father's death her career flourished. She published several books of her own, strictly adhering the rules her father had set, but going expanding where he did not have the opportunity. She is most noted for her work with children and the concept of children undergoing analysis. In addition, she was a school teacher, added to the knowledge of ego psychology and maintained The Hampstead Child Therapy Clinic.

She began school in 1901 at age six at a private elementary school. Since her father was made a professor, his clientele increased and the family had a higher income. As a student she was very bored and restless and whined about attending school. This gave her the nickname "Black Devil." In her later years in school, she would divert her restlessness by reading and writing incessantly.

In 1912 Anna graduated from school in the early summer. She was seventeen. However, this presented her with the question of what she was going to become. At this time her sister Sophie announced her marriage to Max Halberstadt, a man she had known only a short time. For the winter Anna was sent to Sicily and Italy to improve her health, take time off to contemplate her future and to broaden her horizons. She stayed with her grandmother.

In the summer of 1918 she tried a form of teaching called "project teaching." This brought her to Hungary to teach in the summer for one month. Then her students from Vienna came to Hungary to learn everything they could from experience. This proved to be a success, and was continued for several years after she left the school.

In the duration of 1920 she began to volunteer at the Baumgarten Home that cared for Jewish children that were orphaned or made homeless by the war. Here she met Siegfried Bernfeld and Willi Hoffer who ran the Home. Bernfeld, Hoffer and Anna would gather and discuss their experiences with children. Anna asked August Aichhorn to join them since he had a vast background with children. Namely, he ran a juvenile delinquent institution in northwestern Vienna. Within this group, Anna became aware of a different type of people that she hadn't encountered at the elite schools where she had previously taught. However, she was branching to all social strata, as her father had articulated at the Budapest Conference months before.

Anna Freud created the field of child psychoanalysis and her work contributed greatly to our understanding of child psychology. She also developed different techniques to treat children. Freud noted that children’s symptoms differed from those of adults and were often related to developmental stages. She also provided clear explanations of the ego's defense mechanisms in her book The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense 1936 .